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Reactors

Severe service ball valves providing secure isolation during chemical reactions

Reactors are vessels designed to perform chemical reactions that take place in the presence of a catalyst between reactants in feedstock, or reactants in multiple feed streams. The activity in the reactor is the heart of the process and is constantly trying to maximize net present value for the given reaction by enhancing yield at optimum conditions. The chemical reactions occurring in the reactor may be exothermic or endothermic.

Severe service isolation valves are installed at both the beginning (injection) and the end (withdrawal) of the reactor. Those located at the end of the reaction process are usually subjected to harsh conditions that can be punishing to a common commodity valve.

Typical conditions that severe service valves must handle around the reactors can include:
  • High temperatures / high pressures
  • Abrasive media
  • Viscous sludge
  • Acidic liquids
  • Velocity and / or volume concerns

Note: Many types of reactors are used for a variety of processes, with only a few common examples shown below.


 
Fixed-Bed Reactor Process Flow Diagram
  1. Feed or Cut
  2. Isolation or Seal
  3. Bleed or Vent
  4. Mixer Reactor Isolation
  5. Reactant Emergency Block
  6. Product Emergency Block
  7. Reactor Effluent Pressure Reduction

 
Multiple Fixed-Bed Switching Reactors Process Flow Diagram
  1. Feed Switching
  2. Feed Control
  3. Feed Manual Isolation
  4. Natural Gas Inlet Purge Switching
  5. Natural Gas Purge Control
  6. Natural Gas Purge Manual Isolation
  7. Reactor Effluent Switching
  8. Natural Gas Outlet Purge Switching
  9. Regeneration Air Switching
  10. Regeneration Outlet Switching

 
CCR Reactor Process Flow Diagram
  1. Reactor Overhead Purge (Automated)
  2. Reactor Overhead Regeneration (Automated)
  3. Standby Reduction Zone Purge (Manual)
  4. Reactor Bottoms Unloading (Manual)
  5. Reactor Bottoms Unloading (Automated)
  6. Hydrogen Loading to Lockhopper 1 (Manual)
  7. Hydrogen Vent for Lockhopper 1 & 2 (Manual)
  8. Nitrogen Purge for Lockhopper 1 & 2 (Manual)
  9. Catalyst to Lift Engager 1 & 2 (Manual)
  10. Catalyst to Lift Engager 1 & 2 (Automated)
  11. Air to Regeneration Cooler (Manual)
  12. Air to Surge Hopper (Manual)
  13. Fresh Catalyst Addition (Automated)
  14. Regen Catalyst Unloading from Surge Hopper (Manual)
  15. Regen Catalyst Unloading from Surge Hopper (Automated)
  16. Pressure Balancing for Lockhopper / Lift Engager 2 (Manual)